The ICT project model

The cross-governmental ICT project model contributes to better, more uniform planning, management and implementation of governmental ICT projects.

The model is embedded in Budgetvejledningen (The Ministry of Finance’s budget guidelines) and must be applied to all ICT projects in the government sector.

This model shows the five phases of IT projects applying the ICT project model. The model also shows the products each IT project will need to deliver in order to be able to transition into the next phase. The first phase is the Idea phase. In order to transition to the next phase, the Analysis phase, the IT project must deliver a project brief. In the analysis phase the project must deliver two products; a Project Initiation document (PID) and a Business case. When these documents have been approved, the project can move into the Acquisition phase. This is followed by the fourth phase, the Implementation phase. In this phase the project must provide a Project end report. When this is approved, the project can move into the fifth, and final, phase – the Realization phase. In this phase the project must provide a Benefits realization report.

The cross-governmental ICT project model is a tool to be used by the project manager. It is meant to support day-to-day management of the project as well as contribute to ensuring that the ICT project is successfully implemented. The model is generic and must be adjusted to the size and context of the individual project to meet the specific management needs of the individual project.

Four elements of the model

1. Stages of the model

The five distinct main stages of the model serve individual purposes and clearly distinguishes when a stage begins and ends. Each main stage may be divided into sub-stages, if it proves expedient for the management of the project.

2. Principles for stage transitions

The transition from one stage to the next signifies a change in the state of the project. The cross-governmental ICT project model clearly states what documentation at stage transitions entails and where the responsibility for approving the transition lies.

3. Products

The products of the model are the documents necessary for the project manager during day-to-day management of the project. The products also serve as the basis for decision-making by the steering committee.

4. Distribution of roles and responsibility

The responsibility for leadership and management of the five stages is placed in various places in the organisation. The model includes a guide for how roles are to be manned during the course of the project, and what the respective roles are responsible for.

Five strategic principles of the model

Five strategic principles are set as guidance for the way in which ICT projects are managed and implemented in government authorities. The aim of the principles is to reduce the risk profile of ICT projects.

The five principles are:

  1. Government agencies shall pursue ambitious solutions in relation to digitisation but is obliged not to be ‘first mover’ in the usage of immature technologies unless there are special perspectives in doing so.
  2. Already purchased or developed solutions must be reused wherever possible.
  3. Only projects with clearly specified cost, benefits, and effects should be implemented.
  4. Projects should be delineated by minimising scope and complexity with a clear focus on the business objectives.
  5. Projects shall be managed based on shared methods and through the usage of only qualified resources, in order to ensure a sufficient level of maturity in every project.